Dopamine is the compound that fuels our drive and motivation. It increases attention, improves cognitive function, and stimulates our creativity. It makes us more social and extroverted and helps us form romantic and parental bonds. However, dopamine, when too high, can also have its drawbacks.
What Does Dopamine Do?
The most important dopamine pathway in the brain controls reward-motivated behavior.
Most types of rewards, such as new experiences or accomplishment, can increase dopamine levels in the brain. In addition, most addictive drugs and behavioral addictions can increase dopamine.
In addition, dopamine has many other important roles in humans, including movement, memory, attention, learning,sleep, and mood.
Dysfunctions of the dopamine system contribute to Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia,restless legs syndrome, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
The Dopamine Diet: An Ideal Diet to Increase Dopamine
The following diet will be optimal for increasing dopamine:
Caffeine’s performance-enhancing effects are accomplished via dopamine. Caffeine maintains a higher dopamine concentration especially in those brain areas linked with attention .
You want to consume cholesterol-rich foods because cholesterol is a precursor toPregnenolone, which increases dopamine in animals [11,12].Saturated fatscan suppress dopamine. Equivalent intake of monounsaturated fats (from olive oil) protects against dopamine decreasing.
Green teaincreases dopamine in rats, including its constituents Theanine and Caffeine.
Caffeine’s performance-enhancing effects are accomplished via dopamine. Caffeine maintains a higher dopamine concentration especially in those brain areas linked with attention.
You want to consume cholesterol-rich foods because cholesterol is a precursor toPregnenolone, which increases dopamine in animals.
Magnesium has antidepressant effects that can partially be tied to increasing dopamine activity in the brain .
Curcumin, found in the spice turmeric, increases dopamine concentration in the brain [14,15,16], by inhibiting MAO-mediated dopamine break down .
Resistant starchis a type of soluble fiber that increases butyrate. Butyrate may increase dopamine levels [18,19].
Folate is needed for the production of dopamine (andserotonin). When your body is low in folate, it cannot produce dopamine and other monoamines efficiently, which may result indepression[20,21].
Nutritional orbrewer’s yeastis rich in uridine.Uridine-5′-monophosphate increases dopamine levels in the rat brain .
Seafood, which contains DHA, can increase dopamine levels in the brain [23,24,25].
Oregano increases dopamine levels by decreasing dopamine break down and reuptake .
Both tyrosine and phenylalanine are found in protein-rich foods:
However, the effects seem to be transient unless meditation is done regularly.
A study shows that long-term meditation practice is needed to induce stable changes in baseline dopamine (striatum) .
3 months of practicingyogaincreased dopamine levels in men (in blood/circulating levels) .
The study revealed that yogic practices might help in the prevention of age-related degeneration….in healthy males.
Pleasurable physical contact can increase dopamine.
In rats, it was shown that stroking increases dopamine release (nucleus accumbens) .
Tickling, as a form of play behavior in adolescent rats, also increases dopamine release (nucleus accumbens) .
In early life, stimulation from touching improves spatial working memory in rats, possibly by improving dopamine function .
6) Massage therapy increases dopamine
Massage therapy increases dopamine, with a 31% increase of urinary dopamine in people .
Massage increased dopamine levels in pregnant women with depression  and in adolescents with bulimia .
Parts of the brain release dopamine when listening to pleasurable music (striatum, nucleus accumbens) [43,44,45,46].
Not just listening, but creating and performing music also produce dopamine .
Food to Increase Dopamine
8) Tyrosine- and phenylalanine-rich food
Our bodies produce dopamine from the amino acidtyrosine. In turn, tyrosine can be produced from phenylalanine . Both tyrosine and phenylalanine are found in protein-rich foods : chicken, turkey, fish, peanuts, almonds, avocados, bananas, milk, cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese, lima beans, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, and soy.
Bananas especially contain high dopamine and L-dopa levels [5,6].
9) Unsaturated fat
Saturated fatscan suppress dopamine. Equivalent intake of monounsaturated fats protects against dopamine decreasing .
Supplements That Increase Dopamine
Tyrosinesupplementation increases dopamine levels in the brain [48,49,50].
A study shows that tyrosine supplementation effectively enhances cognitive performance, particularly in short-term stressful and/or cognitively demanding situations when dopamine is temporarily depleted [51,48].
11) Green Tea
Green teaincreases dopamine in rats (in blood, stress model) [8,9].
Theanine, one of the major amino acid components in green tea, increases dopamine in animals [52,53,54].
Caffeine’s performance-enhancing effects are accomplished via dopamine. Caffeine maintains a higher dopamine concentration especially in those brain areas linked with attention .
Pregnenolonesulfate increases dopamine in animals (striatum, nucleus accumbens) [11,12].
Magnesiumhas antidepressant effects that can partially be tied to increasing dopamine activity in the brain .
15) St. John’s Wort
A number of studies have shown thatSt. John’s Wort, an herbal anti-depressant, increases dopamine content in the brain (nucleus accumbens, striatum) [57,58,59,60,61].
Gingko bilobaincreases dopamine and dopamine neuron activity (PVN, VTA, Nucleus Accumbens) [62,63,64]. This increase in dopamine may partially explain the improvement of cognitive function observed with Gingko supplementation.
Curcuminincreases dopamine concentration in the brain [14,15,16], by inhibiting MAO-mediated dopamine break down .
Butyratemay increase dopamine levels in animals in response to toxic injuries (striatum) [18,19]. You can get butyrate in the diet by consuming soluble fibers found in fruits and vegetables or ghee.
Folate is found in leafy greens/vegetables and is needed for the production/synthesis of dopamine (andserotonin). When your body is low in folate, it cannot produce dopamine and other neurotransmitters (monoamines) efficiently, which may result indepression[20,21].
20) Huperzine A
Huperzine A is a substance that is known to increaseacetylcholine, but it also increases dopamine levels 129% above baseline in rats (cortex) .
This substance may help with treating drug addiction .
S-Adenosyl-l-methionine(SAM-e) is an over-the-counter dietary supplement commonly used to treat depression. SAMe helps in the production of dopamine and other monoamines, causing elevations in dopamine levels .
Shilajitis a naturally occurring biomass found in the Himalayas. In traditional Indian medical practice to be useful in the treatment of nervous disorders, epilepsy and as an antistress agent.
Shilajitincreases the levels of neuronal dopamine in the brain, which has an anxiety suppressing action .
Uridine-5′-monophosphate increases dopamine levels in the rat brain when the neurons are activated (striatum) . Uridine is found very concentrated in nutritional and brewer’s yeast, meat and fish.
24) Fish Oil
Seafood/Fish Oil/DHAcan increase dopamine levels in the brain in rats (striatum). Dopamine levels were also 40% greater in the frontal cortex of rats fed fish oil. DHA treatment led to an 89% rise in tyrosine-hydroxylase terminals within the striatum in lesioned animals [23,24,25].
Ginsengcomponents can increase levels of dopamine in the brain and have beneficial effects on attention, cognitive processing, sensorimotor function and auditory reaction time in healthy subjects .
However, ginseng can also blunt dopamine release in response to other stimulants such asnicotineand cocaine [70,71].
Higher doses of kava (Piper methysticum) increase levels of dopamine in rats (nucleus accumbens). Individual compounds isolated from kava can both increase or decrease dopamine concentration [86,87].
However, in a couple of cases, blocked dopamine function has also been observed .
The probioticLactobacillus plantarumcan increase dopamine in the brain in mice (striatum), and could potentially improve anxiety-like behaviors and psychiatric disorders [89,90].
35) Fresh Cut Grass/Essential Oils
Hexanalis a “green” odor compound found in plants that may increase dopamine in rats (striatum) [91,92]. Increasing dopamine is a potential mechanism in which green odors, such as fresh cut grass and plant essential oils, may improve mood and attention.
Flowering quince, the fruit ofChaenomeles speciosaused in Chinese traditional medicine, increases dopamine levels by inhibiting the dopamine transporter (DAT) .
Psoralea corylifoliafruit/seed extract and its components increase dopamine [94,95]. This plant is used both in Ayurveda and Chinese traditional medicine.
The edible mushroomMycoleptodonoides aitchisoniiincreases dopamine .
Blue trumpet vine(Thunbergia laurifolia) is a Thai herbal medicine used to treat drug addiction. It works by increasing dopamine [97,98].
Prickly nightshade(Solanum torvum) increases dopamine and shows antidepressant activity .
Gardenia jasminoidescan increase dopamine by inhibitingMAO-AandB.
Hormones that Increase Dopamine:
Estrogenmay increase dopamine. Women act more impulsively in the early as opposed to the late phase of the menstrual cycle .
In rats, estrogen-induced improvements in recognition memory were shown to be due, in part, to increased dopamine .
However, dopamine’s relationship to cognitive performance is not linear – dopamine function follows an ‘inverted U-shaped’ curve, where optimal dopamine results in maximal function and both insufficient or excessive levels lead to dysfunction . That is why too much estrogen is not beneficial.
Sugar acutely increases dopamine, which, over time, leads to a reduced number of D2 receptors and possibly a reduction in dopamine itself, leading to desensitization. These effects would not be due to the acute effects of sugar, but rather would occur over weeks to months with chronically elevated and intermittent sugar ingestion .
5) Iron Deficiency
Iron is a cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase, a key enzyme in dopamine production . Iron-deficient rats have reduced brain dopamine levels .
Low brain iron stores may contribute to ADHD symptoms because low iron levels in the brain can alter the activity of dopamine .
Weaning rats fed an iron-deficient diet showed decreased physical activity and increased anxiety-like behavior with a reduction of brain dopamine receptors .
However, some studies indicate iron deficiency has the exact opposite effect .
Trichotillomania Way of Thinking vs. Recovery Way of Thinking
1. T: I have to pull out my hair. R: I can do some thing else that is positive.
2. T: Pulling out my hair is fun. R: What is fun about being bald?
3. T: The white/kinky/thick/whatever hairs must go. R: All hairs are good hairs. I need them all for a healthy head of hair, etc.
4. T: I’ll just pull out one hair. R: This is a lie trich tells me. I can rarely just stop at one hair.
5. T: When I get that itchy or “trich sensation”, I have to pull my hair. R: I can wash my hair or scratch my head instead.
6. T: It’s ok to use the mirror to find good hairs to pull. R: Why would I want to pull out my hair and create more bald spots? I will stay away from the mirror and temptation.
7. T: It’s ok to use tweezers to get those small hairs. R: Again, why would I want to pull out new growth and create more bald spots? I will use my tweezers for the unwanted hairs only, then put them away.
8. T: When I’m stressed I need to pull out my hair. R: I can take deep breaths, meditate or go for a walk to relax my body, or I can destress with a nice bubble bath. I can do so many other healthy things to relax my body instead of pulling. Pulling really doesn’t help me to feel less stressed any way, because I know that by pulling I will be creating new bald spots. Everyone has stress in life. I must learn to be with my stress with out pulling out my hair.
9. T: When I’m bored I need to pull out my hair. R: Can’t I think of some thing more fun to do than pull out my hair when I’m bored? Why not do a hobby, a sport, a puzzle, a craft…any thing but pulling!
10. T: When I’m tired I need to pull out my hair. R: I can go to sleep instead. How many times do I stay up way past when my body tells me that I am tired, only to start pulling out my hair? I must go to bed!
11. T: When I’m depressed I need to pull out my hair. R: I can get help for my depression from a psychiatrist and/or therapist. Pulling out my hair will only increase my depression, because I feel sad when I have bald spots.
12. T: I have to make both brows look the same. R: Symmetry is not important. New growth is! In time, once my brows have had a chance to come back, both brows will look the same. By trying to make both brows even, I risk pulling more than I want to.
13. T: Now that my hair is filling in, I can lose a few hairs with out any noticeable damage. R: No I can’t! Once I start pulling, I have a hard time stopping. A few hairs a day over time will still lead to bald spots. Small or large amounts of pulling are both dangerous behaviors.
14. T: I’ll quit pulling tomorrow. R: You know what they say…”Tomorrow never comes!” I will make today the day that I stop pulling.
15. T: I can play with my hair this time with out pulling. R: Touching my hair leads to playing with my hair, playing with my hair leads to pulling. I will keep my hands down!
16. T: I love to play with the hairs after I pull them. R: Playing with the hairs only reinforces my trichotillomania, so I must not do this. I must break the trich rituals in order to be free of trichotillomania.
17. T: Some day my trich will go away, until
then I will continue to pull. R: Trich is for life. It will not magically go away. I have to work at my recovery in order to break free of this disorder.
18. T: I can learn to live with this longer hair, even if I am pulling right now. R: When I am pulling, it is hard to stop. I must cut my hair short so that I can get a break from the pulling. I have no urges when my hair is really short. I won’t risk more damage to my hair, which will take longer to grow back.
19. T: My hair will grow back, so I can pull out my hair today. R: Just because my hair will grow back doesn’t mean that I can keep pulling. Why would I want to postpone my regrowth and my recovery?
20: T: I’ll keep on pulling until I see significant damage in the mirror. R: It’s not ok to keep pulling! Any damage means that it will take longer before I get all my hair back. Trich makes excuses so that I keep pulling! This is one I have told myself often.
21. T: I have to check the mirror to see if my hair is regrowing. R: This is obsessive and obsessiveness leads to pulling. I take pictures of my hair now once a month and stay away from the mirror and obsessing.
22. T: Concentrating on individual hairs makes it fun to pull and keeps me in the trich way of thinking. R: I concentrate on thinking of my hair as a whole unit. I need all those hairs to make a full head of hair, a set of brows or a set of lashes.
23. T: I need to pull out my hair when I procrastinate. It bothers me that I am not doing what I need to do, which creates a stressful mood and then I want to pull. R: I can get up and do 5 minutes of what I need to do. I can do some thing for 5 minutes! Then once I am started, it will probably be easier to keep going and I will get what I need done and feel good about myself. Even if I quit after 5 minutes today, if I work 5 minutes on what needs doing each day, soon it will be done, therefore eliminating my stress and helping me to feel better about myself.
24. T: My hair will never grow back, so what is the point in trying to stop pulling! R: It takes 2 to 6 years for hair to grow back for some one who has pulled for 20 years or more, but the good news is it will come back, which is great!
25. T: I can’t tell any one about my hair pulling, because then they will think I’m crazy and stop liking me. R: By telling others about my trich, I will lose my shame and guilt associated with it. It is not my fault that I got trich or have a hard time dealing with it. By telling others, I see that having trich is no big deal. Every one has something! And most people are very understanding and supportive once they find out more about this disorder. This was the big surprise for me when I “came out”. Also in letting others know about my trich and have them accept me any way, helps me to accept and love myself.
26. T: My hands have to go to my head and pull! R: No they don’t! I can keep my hands busy with trich toys such as a koosh ball, silly putty, stress ball, grabbing both hands, holding any thing or doing some thing to keep my hands busy in a positive way instead of pulling, such as rug hooking or other crafts and hobbies.
27. T: Every thing that I do must be perfect, if it is not, then I get stressed out and want to pull out my hair. R: Every thing that I do does not have to be perfect! No one else is perfect and I don’t expect them to be, so why should I expect perfection from myself? I can lighten up and enjoy life!
28. T: If I stop pulling, who am I? R: I am still a person who has trich, only I am in recovery.
29. T: If I stop pulling, will I do some thing else that is equally destructive? R: I won’t replace my trich with another bad habit, if I realize that this is possible. I will work at replacing my trich with good behaviors and habits.
30. T: When I am on the phone I have to pull. R: I don’t have to stay on the phone with a person that is stressing me out. I can end the conversation and therefore end my need to pull. I can also play with the cord instead of pulling, when I have to be in this stressful situation and continue talking to this person.
31. T: I am a compulsive hair puller. R: I am so much more than a person that pulls out their hair. I am some one who enjoys hobbies, sports, leisure, relaxation, work and fun! I can choose what will define me and hair pulling is not what I want to be known for.
32. T: If I pull out my hair, I’m not worthy of love. R: Yes I am! I am worthy of love whether I pull out my hair or not. Hair pulling is not all that I am. I am worthy of love from others and from myself!
33. T: What is the point of trying to quit, when I will just start again? R: I know that everything takes time to learn and I will learn to not pull out my hair. I may have setbacks, but with each successful attempt at not pulling, I get closer to quitting pulling forever!
34. T: Trich is bad! R: Trich is good. When my hand goes to my hair, I know that some thing is not right with in me. I am either bored, tired, stressed, have dirty hair, am procrastinating, am depressed, etc. and I need to do some thing about it. Trich the is first to know, long before I know these things consciously.
35. T: I have an urge to pull, therefore I must pull! R: The urge to pull will pass if I do nothing at all. I will not die from this urge. It’s ok to get urges, but I don’t have to act on them. I can take a deep breath and relax.
36. T: I’ll never be able to stop pulling! I hate myself! R: I can learn to stop pulling by learning all that I can about trich and how it affects me. I can learn what my triggers are and what to do when I get them. I can learn that beating myself up for pulling and hating myself because of my pulling only makes my pulling worse. I can learn to use positive self-talk to help decrease the urge to pull. I can learn to love myself even if I continue to pull out my hair. I am worthwhile for who I am, not for how much hair I have.
37. T: I often pull with out realizing it and zone for a long time before I am aware of my pulling. How can I help myself if I don’t know I’m pulling? R: Awareness takes time and practice. In time, I will become aware of where my hands are and stop them before they start pulling. I will give myself the time and patience to learn the new behavior of awareness.
38. T: I’m the only one that does this. R: Nope. Millions of people pull out their hair, some where between 2 and 5% of the population pulls their hair. This covers all walks of life.
39. T: Slips are bad. R: Slips are a way of learning. I ask myself why I was pulling and then try to do something different next time to either avoid that situation or to change my response to that trigger, one that is positive and not negative like pulling.
40. T: Quitting pulling is too hard. R: Quitting pulling is not too hard if I take it in small steps, have patience with my recovery and give my recovery the time that it needs to succeed.
“Inaction breeds doubt and fear. Action breeds confidence and courage. If you want to conquer fear, do not sit home and think about it. Go out and get busy.” ~ Dale Carnegie…
Good morning everybody… To me, faith is a mindset. It is the substance of things we hope for yet evidence of things not seen. Doubt, on the other hand, is just another form of fear. As a child, I deeply trusted my faith. I was young, life hadn’t had the opportunity to beat me down yet. This was before I started listening to my ego more than my heart and fear started pushing God out. So, when my faith and trust in God began to re-enter my life, I started feeling like a child again with absolute faith. I began to realize that every experience, especially the difficult ones, are here to teach me about my own truth and help me to awaken. But, if I remained frozen in doubt, I would never learn that lesson. So, follow your dream, take that chance. God will be with you every step of the way. Have a great Thursday! Good bless you in all endeavours.
“…we covered low self-esteem by hiding behind phony images that we hoped would fool people. The masks have to go.”
Basic Text, p. 33
Over-sensitivity, insecurity, and lack of identity are often associated with active addiction. Many of us carry these with us into recovery; our fears of inadequacy, rejection, and lack of direction do not disappear overnight. Many of us have images, false personalities we have constructed either to protect ourselves or please others. Some of us use masks because we’re not sure who we really are. Sometimes we think that these images, built to protect us while using, might also protect us in recovery.
We use false fronts to hide our true personality, to disguise our lack of self-esteem. These masks hide us from others and also from our own true selves. By living a lie, we are saying that we cannot live with the truth about ourselves. The more we hide our real selves, the more we damage our self-esteem.
One of the miracles of recovery is the recognition of ourselves, complete with assets and liabilities. Self-esteem begins with this recognition. Despite our fear of becoming vulnerable, we need to be willing to let go of our disguises. We need to be free of our masks and free to trust ourselves.
Just for today: I will let go of my masks and allow my self- esteem to grow.
It’s been a while since I checked in and talked about my pulling. Perseverance though this uphill battle is not easy. Everyday I need to make a conscious effort to resist the urge to pull. Some days are good and I barely pull, while other days it seems I can’t stop. I still hope to be pull free one day, but accept where I am and see this as a process. It’s so engrained in my being that I don’t even know what life is like without pulling. I’ve had short remission periods, but never more than a few months.
I refuse to give up or become complacent. If I didn’t try I’d have way less hair so in a way I’m making progress. My recovery includes acceptance of my current situation and faith that it will change through awareness, commitment, helpful behaviors, following my rules (see below) a positive attitude, balance, mood stabilization, barriers, the John Kender diet, and supplements.
I had given up on the supplements because of some stomach issues which have resolved. I’m going to try my regimen of NAC, inositol, and the John kender diet again. I’ll also resume charting my pulling as that has always helped with my awareness. I’ll be checking in periodically with updates on my current supplements and pulling progress. I’ll use my daily score of 0-10 to rate my pulling. I’m going to post my supplement plan and rating system for anyone looking to follow it. These two tools have helped me most over my 25 years of battling trich.
The John Kender Diet
Basically , it’s a nutritional and skin care approach. First, try not eating sugar, caffeine, and chocolate. Have some dry red wine or uncaffinated tea instead. These should have an effect in about two or three days. Then, avoid peanuts, chickpeas beans, egg yolks, tuna, and waxes. These should have an effect in about 10 days. Take magnesium gluconate, and take borage oil. Use Shampoos with selenium (Selsun) or Nizoral. Keep a food diary to help you track your own particular triggers. Keep your hair and hands clean. Wash your lashes with baby shampoo hot compresses. Watch out for pet fur. Apply fresh cut ginger, or miconazole nitrate cream, or propylene glycol/aloe vera/rubbing alcohol, or eyewash/vinegar. Use Sea Breeze or Band-Aid Anti-Itch gel for emergency hot spot care.
I take NAC (N-acetylcysteine) 3- 600mg capsules of NAC (N-acetylcysteinen) in the morning and 3-600mg capsules in the evening, giving me a total of 3600mg of NAC. Doses between 1200-3600mg may be helpful according to this article.
It is generally agreed that a large dose is needed for inositol to be effective with trich. I worked my way up to 18g per day. I do this by mixing 3 teaspoons or 1 tablespoon of inositol in water 3 times a day. I have found the Jarrow brand powder dissolves best. It is available on amazon for a reasonable price. I mix it with warm water as it dissolves better that way. You can add it to fruit juice or other sweetened drinks. I simply mix the powder with ~3 oz.
#1 Where Bandaides or other barriers whenever possible, if not wearing them use fiddle toy /keep hands below neck and BE AWARE.
#2 Avoid mirrors. Don’ t stand close, do makeup quickly, avoid touch ups or unnecessary glances.
#3 Keep hands off of face. Don’t touch hair or eyes. Use only one finger or utensil if need to itch or touch eye/head and don’t linger. BE AWARE.
#4 Change activity when triggered before pulling begins.
#5 When stressed find way to take a break and relax (at least 1 minute deep breathing break).
With approximately40 million adultsacross the United States experiencing anxiety each year, scientists and researchers have dedicated their careers to trying to better understand this condition. Despite this work, we are still somewhat unclear on what actually causes this condition to occur.
Characterized byfeelings of nervousness and restlessness, increased heart rate, hyperventilation, sweating, trembling, difficulty concentrating and uncontrolled worry, it has the ability to impact every area of one’s life. There are manytheories regarding the root causeof the condition, including genetics, brain chemistry, environmental factors or other medical factors and/or disease, however, nothing has been proven definitively. Instead, the scientific community continues to explore these leads further in the hope of an answer.
Onesmall study out of Japanmay provide an important insight into the connection between nutritional deficiencies and mental health, revealing that low levels of vitamin B6 and iron may actually trigger the chemical changes in the brain responsible for panic attacks, hyperventilation and other forms of anxiety.
The research team analyzed the nutritional levels of 21 participants with varying levels of anxiety, panic attacks, and hyperventilation episodes. While some experienced minor attacks, manageable at home, others were severe enough to result in emergency room visits. They tested these participants for a number of different nutritional deficiencies or abnormalities in the hope of identifying a pattern. At the same time, they ran a similar set of tests on a control group of 20 people, comparing the two.
The data showed that those who were experiencing anxiety were found to have lower levels of B6 and Iron than those in the healthy group. Why is this important? One of the most accepted theories regarding the development of anxiety is that it is caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain, with serotonin seen as a key player. This is due to the fact thatserotonin is one of the ‘happiness hormones’, responsible for triggering the reward and pleasure centers of the brain.
Serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan, and both iron and vitamin B6 play an important role in this process. Therefore, an absence of these nutrients can, ultimately cause a decrease of serotonin levels. In fact, many of today’s antidepressant drugs work on this same theory, by boosting serotonin levels in order to regulate mental health.
The study’s authors wrote,“These results suggest that low serum concentrations of vitamin B6 and iron are involved in PA (panic attacks) and HVA (hyperventilation). Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved in such differences.”
I blog about my personal struggle with trichotillomania and bipolar disorder. I also discuss helpful strategies, reflections, and treatments.