Tag Archives: dopamine

Increase Dopamine

What Is Dopamine?

Dopamine is the compound that fuels our drive and motivation. It increases attention, improves cognitive function, and stimulates our creativity. It makes us more social and extroverted and helps us form romantic and parental bonds. However, dopamine, when too high, can also have its drawbacks.

What Does Dopamine Do?

The most important dopamine pathway in the brain controls reward-motivated behavior.

Most types of rewards, such as new experiences or accomplishment, can increase dopamine levels in the brain. In addition, most addictive drugs and behavioral addictions can increase dopamine.

In addition, dopamine has many other important roles in humans, including movement, memory, attention, learning, sleep, and mood.

Dysfunctions of the dopamine system contribute to Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, restless legs syndrome, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

The Dopamine Diet: An Ideal Diet to Increase Dopamine

The following diet will be optimal for increasing dopamine:

Our bodies produce dopamine from the amino acid tyrosine. In turn, tyrosine can be produced from phenylalanine.

Bananas especially contain high dopamine and L-dopa levels [5, 6].

Bananas especially contain high dopamine and L-dopa levels [5, 6].

Saturated fats can suppress dopamine. Equivalent intake of monounsaturated fats (from olive oil) protects against dopamine decreasing [7].

Green tea increases dopamine in rats [8, 9], including its constituents Theanine and Caffeine.

Caffeine’s performance-enhancing effects are accomplished via dopamine. Caffeine maintains a higher dopamine concentration especially in those brain areas linked with attention [10].

You want to consume cholesterol-rich foods because cholesterol is a precursor to Pregnenolone, which increases dopamine in animals [11, 12].Saturated fats can suppress dopamine. Equivalent intake of monounsaturated fats (from olive oil) protects against dopamine decreasing.

Green tea increases dopamine in rats, including its constituents Theanine and Caffeine.

Caffeine’s performance-enhancing effects are accomplished via dopamine. Caffeine maintains a higher dopamine concentration especially in those brain areas linked with attention.

You want to consume cholesterol-rich foods because cholesterol is a precursor to Pregnenolone, which increases dopamine in animals.

Magnesium has antidepressant effects that can partially be tied to increasing dopamine activity in the brain [13].

Curcumin, found in the spice turmeric, increases dopamine concentration in the brain [14, 15, 16], by inhibiting MAO-mediated dopamine break down [17].

Resistant starch is a type of soluble fiber that increases butyrate. Butyrate may increase dopamine levels [18, 19].

Folate is needed for the production of dopamine (and serotonin). When your body is low in folate, it cannot produce dopamine and other monoamines efficiently, which may result in depression [20, 21].

Nutritional or brewer’s yeast is rich in uridine. Uridine-5′-monophosphate increases dopamine levels in the rat brain [22].

Seafood, which contains DHA, can increase dopamine levels in the brain [23, 24, 25].

Oregano increases dopamine levels by decreasing dopamine break down and reuptake [26].

Both tyrosine and phenylalanine are found in protein-rich foods [27]:

  • Chicken and Turkey
  • Fish
  • Almonds
  • Avocados
  • Bananas
  • Pumpkin and Sesame seeds
  • Dairy: Milk, Cheese, Yogurt, Cottage cheese
  • Legumes: Soy, Lima beans, Peanuts

Lifestyle to Increase Dopamine

1) Sun/Being outside/Bright Light increases dopamine

Bright light can improve our mood. This may partially be due to dopamine.

A study shows that light may increase dopamine, and thereby improve mood in women with mild seasonal mood disorder [28].

Light also stimulates the release of dopamine in the retina, and this is beneficial for maintaining good vision [29].

2) Exercise

Exercise increases dopamine [30, 31].

A study in women showed that exercise decreases COMT activity, thereby increasing dopamine in women (in the prefrontal cortex) [32]. COMT is the enzyme that breaks down dopamine.

3) Meditation

Meditation increases dopamine release [33, 34].

However, the effects seem to be transient unless meditation is done regularly.

A study shows that long-term meditation practice is needed to induce stable changes in baseline dopamine (striatum) [35].

4) Yoga

3 months of practicing yogaincreased dopamine levels in men (in blood/circulating levels) [36].

The study revealed that yogic practices might help in the prevention of age-related degeneration….in healthy males.

5) Touch

Pleasurable physical contact can increase dopamine.

In rats, it was shown that stroking increases dopamine release (nucleus accumbens) [37].

Tickling, as a form of play behavior in adolescent rats, also increases dopamine release (nucleus accumbens) [38].

In early life, stimulation from touching improves spatial working memory in rats, possibly by improving dopamine function [39].

6) Massage therapy increases dopamine

Massage therapy increases dopamine, with a 31% increase of urinary dopamine in people [40].

Massage increased dopamine levels in pregnant women with depression [41] and in adolescents with bulimia [42].

7) Music

Parts of the brain release dopamine when listening to pleasurable music (striatum, nucleus accumbens) [43, 44, 45, 46].

Not just listening, but creating and performing music also produce dopamine [47].

Food to Increase Dopamine

8) Tyrosine- and phenylalanine-rich food

Our bodies produce dopamine from the amino acid tyrosine. In turn, tyrosine can be produced from phenylalanine [4]. Both tyrosine and phenylalanine are found in protein-rich foods [27]: chicken, turkey, fish, peanuts, almonds, avocados, bananas, milk, cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese, lima beans, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, and soy.

Bananas especially contain high dopamine and L-dopa levels [5, 6].

9) Unsaturated fat

Saturated fats can suppress dopamine. Equivalent intake of monounsaturated fats protects against dopamine decreasing [7].

Supplements That Increase Dopamine

10) Tyrosine

dopamine_production increase dopamine

Tyrosine supplementation increases dopamine levels in the brain [48, 49, 50].

A study shows that tyrosine supplementation effectively enhances cognitive performance, particularly in short-term stressful and/or cognitively demanding situations when dopamine is temporarily depleted [51, 48].

11) Green Tea

Green tea increases dopamine in rats (in blood, stress model) [8, 9].

Theanine, one of the major amino acid components in green tea, increases dopamine in animals [52, 53, 54].

12) Caffeine

Caffeine increases dopamine release (striatum, nucleus accumbens) [55, 56].

Caffeine’s performance-enhancing effects are accomplished via dopamine. Caffeine maintains a higher dopamine concentration especially in those brain areas linked with attention [10].

13) Pregnenolone

Pregnenolone sulfate increases dopamine in animals (striatum, nucleus accumbens) [11, 12].

14) Magnesium

Magnesium has antidepressant effects that can partially be tied to increasing dopamine activity in the brain [13].

15) St. John’s Wort

A number of studies have shown that St. John’s Wort, an herbal anti-depressant, increases dopamine content in the brain (nucleus accumbens, striatum) [57, 58, 59, 60, 61].

16) Gingko

Gingko biloba increases dopamine and dopamine neuron activity (PVN, VTA, Nucleus Accumbens) [62, 63, 64]. This increase in dopamine may partially explain the improvement of cognitive function observed with Gingko supplementation.

17) Curcumin

Curcumin increases dopamine concentration in the brain [14, 15, 16], by inhibiting MAO-mediated dopamine break down [17].

18) Butyrate

Butyrate may increase dopamine levels in animals in response to toxic injuries (striatum) [18, 19]. You can get butyrate in the diet by consuming soluble fibers found in fruits and vegetables or ghee.

19) Folate

Folate is found in leafy greens/vegetables and is needed for the production/synthesis of dopamine (and serotonin). When your body is low in folate, it cannot produce dopamine and other neurotransmitters (monoamines) efficiently, which may result in depression [20, 21].

20) Huperzine A

Huperzine A is a substance that is known to increase acetylcholine, but it also increases dopamine levels 129% above baseline in rats (cortex) [65].

This substance may help with treating drug addiction [66].

21) SAM-e

S-Adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM-e) is an over-the-counter dietary supplement commonly used to treat depression. SAMe helps in the production of dopamine and other monoamines, causing elevations in dopamine levels [67].

22) Shilajit

Shilajit is a naturally occurring biomass found in the Himalayas. In traditional Indian medical practice to be useful in the treatment of nervous disorders, epilepsy and as an antistress agent.

Shilajit increases the levels of neuronal dopamine in the brain, which has an anxiety suppressing action [68].

23) Uridine

Uridine-5′-monophosphate increases dopamine levels in the rat brain when the neurons are activated (striatum) [22]. Uridine is found very concentrated in nutritional and brewer’s yeast, meat and fish.

24) Fish Oil

Seafood/Fish Oil/DHA can increase dopamine levels in the brain in rats (striatum). Dopamine levels were also 40% greater in the frontal cortex of rats fed fish oil. DHA treatment led to an 89% rise in tyrosine-hydroxylase terminals within the striatum in lesioned animals [23, 24, 25].

25) Ginseng

Ginseng components can increase levels of dopamine in the brain and have beneficial effects on attention, cognitive processing, sensorimotor function and auditory reaction time in healthy subjects [69].

However, ginseng can also blunt dopamine release in response to other stimulants such as nicotineand cocaine [70, 71].

26) Danshen

Red sage, also known as danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), may increase dopamine in cells (striatum) [72].

27) Resveratrol

Resveratrol can increase dopamine levels in the brain in animals (frontal cortex, striatum). Resveratrol treatment in old rats increased dopamine by 53% (striatum) [73, 74].

28) Oregano

Oregano extract increases dopamine levels by decreasing dopamine break down and reuptake in animals [26].

29) Carvacrol

Carvacrol, present in the essential oil of many plants including oregano and thyme oils, acts as an antidepressant by activating the dopamine system in mice [75].

At low concentrations (what’s in oregano and supplements), carvacrol increases dopamine. However, in high concentrations, it may decrease dopamine levels [76].

30) Clary sage

Clary sage (Salvia sclarea) oil increases dopamine activity in rats, which contribute to its anti-depressant effects [77].

31) Bacopa

Bacopa (Bacopa monnieri) extract can increase dopamine in rats (in the cortex and hippocampus) and have a nootropic effect [78, 79].

32) Mucuna pruriens

Mucuna pruriens has a high concentration of L-Dopa (4 – 7%), which is a precursor of dopamine [80].

Mucuna pruriens, an ayurvedic plant, was shown to increase dopamine in mice [81, 82].

33) Catuaba

The Brazilian medical plant catuaba (Trichilia catigua), increases dopamine release and may have dopamine-mediated antidepressant effects [83].

The herbal product containing this plant, catuama, has similar effects [84].

34) Rosemary

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) increases brain dopamine levels [85].

35) Kava

Higher doses of kava (Piper methysticum) increase levels of dopamine in rats (nucleus accumbens). Individual compounds isolated from kava can both increase or decrease dopamine concentration [86, 87].

However, in a couple of cases, blocked dopamine function has also been observed [88].

36) Lactobacillus plantarum

The probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum can increase dopamine in the brain in mice (striatum), and could potentially improve anxiety-like behaviors and psychiatric disorders [89, 90].

35) Fresh Cut Grass/Essential Oils

Hexanal is a “green” odor compound found in plants that may increase dopamine in rats (striatum) [91, 92]. Increasing dopamine is a potential mechanism in which green odors, such as fresh cut grass and plant essential oils, may improve mood and attention.

36-41) Flowering Quince, Psoralea corylifolia, Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii, Blue trumpet vinePrickly nightshade, Gardenia jasminoides

Flowering quince, the fruit of Chaenomeles speciosa used in Chinese traditional medicine, increases dopamine levels by inhibiting the dopamine transporter (DAT) [93].

Psoralea corylifolia fruit/seed extract and its components increase dopamine [94, 95]. This plant is used both in Ayurveda and Chinese traditional medicine.

The edible mushroom Mycoleptodonoides aitchisoniiincreases dopamine [96].

Blue trumpet vine (Thunbergia laurifolia) is a Thai herbal medicine used to treat drug addiction. It works by increasing dopamine [97, 98].

Prickly nightshade (Solanum torvum) increases dopamine and shows antidepressant activity [99].

Gardenia jasminoides can increase dopamine by inhibiting MAO-A and B [100].

Hormones that Increase Dopamine:

42) Estrogen

Estrogen may increase dopamine. Women act more impulsively in the early as opposed to the late phase of the menstrual cycle [101].

In rats, estrogen-induced improvements in recognition memory were shown to be due, in part, to increased dopamine [102].

However, dopamine’s relationship to cognitive performance is not linear – dopamine function follows an ‘inverted U-shaped’ curve, where optimal dopamine results in maximal function and both insufficient or excessive levels lead to dysfunction [103]. That is why too much estrogen is not beneficial.

43) Ghrelin

Ghrelin stimulates dopamine release in rats (amygdala, nucleus accumbens, VTA, prefrontal cortex) [104, 105].

Dopamine Drugs/Agonists

44) Nicotine

Nicotine “hi-jacks” the reward circuitry in the brain by increasing dopamine release (striatum, VTA, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex) [106, 107104].

45) L-dopa

dopamine_production2 increase dopamine

L-dopa is made from tyrosine, and then converted into dopamine. Basically, it is the precursor of dopamine [108].

46) Bromantane

Bromantane increases the amount of dopamine in the brain by increasing its synthesis from tyrosine (increases Tyrosine Hydroxylase, AAAD) [109, 110].

Enhancement of dopamine is observed in the hypothalamus, striatum, ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and other regions [111112113].

By increasing dopamine, Bromantane increases alertness and wakefulness [114] and improves short-term memory, motivation, planning abilities, and attention [110].

47) Tianeptine

Tianeptine increases the release of dopamine in rats (nucleus accumbens > striatum) [115].

48) Phenibut

Phenibut is a nootropic drug that stimulates dopamine receptors [116].

49) Alcohol

Dopamine release may contribute to the rewarding effects of alcoholand may thereby play a role in promoting alcohol consumption (nucleus accumbens) [117].

50) Methylphenidate/Amphetamines

Amphetamine exerts rewarding and reinforcing effects by elevating dopamine and prolonging dopamine receptor signaling [118].

Methylphenidate works in the treatment of ADHD by increasing levels of dopamine in children’s brains.

Previous research has shown that some people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may have too many dopamine transporters, which results in low levels of dopamine in the brain.

The drug seems to raise levels of dopamine by blocking the activity of dopamine transporters, which remove dopamine once it has been released [119].

51) Modafinil

Modafinil seems to inhibit the reuptake of dopamine by dopamine transporter, thereby increasing the concentration in humans [120, 121].

52) Deprenyl

Deprenyl (Selegiline) increases dopamine by blocking MAO-B, an enzyme that breaks down dopamine [122].

53) MDMA

MDMA/Ecstasy increases dopamine [123].

54) Cocaine

Cocaine inhibits the dopamine transporter responsible for dopamine recycling, thereby increasing the levels [124].

Ways to Decrease Dopamine

Drugs and Supplements that Decrease Dopamine

1) Anti-psychotics

In cases of schizophrenia, you can use anti-psychotic drugs to lower dopamine signaling by blocking the receptors [125].

2) Melatonin

Melatonin suppresses dopamine activity [126].

3) Lithium

Lithium impairs dopamine release [127, 128].

4) Manganese

Long-term manganese decreases dopamine release in the brain [129, 130].

A study showed that manganese exposure, even within the safety limit, decreased dopamineproduction in primates [131].

5) Liriodenine

Liriodenine inhibits dopamine production and decreases dopamine levels [132].

6) Salvinorin A

Derived from the plant Salvia divinorum, Salvinorin A decreases dopamine [133].

7) 5-HTP

Serotonin shares the same conversion and breakdown enzymes with dopamine.

Long-term supplementation with 5-HTP, the immediate precursor of serotonin, can cause dopamine depletion, which can worsen neurological and psychiatric diseases [134].

Conditions That Decrease Dopamine

1) Inflammation

Inflammation decreases dopamine [135]. That’s why we feel less motivated and more sluggish when we are sick [135].

2) Maternal Deprivation

Maternal deprivation of rat pups leads lower dopamine levels. However, these pups reared in isolation have higher levels in response to stress [136].

3) Diet High in Saturated Fats

Saturated fats can suppress dopamine [7, 137].

4) Chronic Sugar Intake

Sugar acutely increases dopamine, which, over time, leads to a reduced number of D2 receptors and possibly a reduction in dopamine itself, leading to desensitization. These effects would not be due to the acute effects of sugar, but rather would occur over weeks to months with chronically elevated and intermittent sugar ingestion [138].

5) Iron Deficiency

Iron is a cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase, a key enzyme in dopamine production [139]. Iron-deficient rats have reduced brain dopamine levels [139].

Low brain iron stores may contribute to ADHD symptoms because low iron levels in the brain can alter the activity of dopamine [140].

Weaning rats fed an iron-deficient diet showed decreased physical activity and increased anxiety-like behavior with a reduction of brain dopamine receptors [141].

However, some studies indicate iron deficiency has the exact opposite effect [142].

Improving Dopamine Levels

What Is Dopamine?

Dopamine is the brain chemical that allows us to have feelings of bliss, pleasure, euphoria, drive, motivation, focus, and concentration. But let’s start at the beginning: Your brain actually communicates with itself. That is, you have an intricately linked system of nerve cells called neurons that “communicate” with each other via specialized receptor sites.

Dopamine is a chemical (neurotransmitter) that is used by the nerves to send “messages.” When a nerve releases dopamine, it crosses a very small gap called a synapse and then attaches to a dopamine receptor on the next nerve. Therefore, when dopamine levels are depleted in the brain, the nerve impulses, or “messages,” cannot be transmitted properly and can impair brain functions: behavior, mood, cognition, attention, learning, movement, and sleep.

How Do I Know Whether I Have Dopamine Deficiency?

When there is a dopamine deficiency, emotions cannot be correctly regulated. Mental impulses that mitigate intense feelings of sadness are inhibited; therefore, the most common low dopamine symptoms are the same signs associated with clinical depression (and more specifically, major depressive disorder):

14 Dopamine Deficiency Symptoms

1 Lack of interest in life

2 Decreased motivation

3 Procrastination

4 Inability to feel pleasure

5 Altered sleep patterns

6 Restless leg syndrome

7 Fatigue

8 Mood swings

9 Excessive feelings of hopelessness or guilt

10 Poor memory

11 Inability to focus/impaired concentration

12 Impulsive or self-destructive behaviors

13 Addictions to caffeine or other stimulants

14 Weight gain

Extreme dopamine deficiency, as in the case of Parkinson’s disease, causes a permanent and degenerative diminishing of motor skills, including muscle rigidity and tremors.

7 Ways to Treat Dopamine Deficiency

With that background in mind, consider the following dopamine-boosting tactics you can take to increase dopamine.

1. Decrease your sugar intake. Sugar alters brain chemistry by disrupting dopamine levels, which is one reason why people often experience a “sugar high” shortly after eating sweets. Just as alcohol and drugs can deplete dopamine levels, sugar does the same. In fact, sugar stimulates the exact same euphoric pathway targeted by alcohol and drug use–that is, the decreased dopamine levels lead to actual sugar addictions.

Whether initiated by alcohol, cocaine, or sugar, the compulsive behavior addiction is the same—an undeniable desire for dopamine. Limiting sugar intake will help fight this addictive dopamine depletion-sugar craving cycle. If you struggle with a sweet tooth, you can take chromium picolinate supplements to help decrease your sugar cravings.[1,2]

2. Take tyrosine. When your brain cells need to “manufacture” neurotransmitters for proper mood regulation, they use amino acids as the essential raw material. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein; there are 20 different amino acids that make up the protein our body needs.

The brain uses the amino acid l-phenylalanine as the source (precursor) for the production of dopamine. Phenylalanine is one of the “essential” amino acids; that is, the body cannot make it on its own so we have to get it from the foods we eat or from supplements. Once the body receives phenylalanine, it can convert it to tyrosine, which in turn is used to synthesize dopamine. So the way to increase central nervous system neurotransmitter levels is to provide proper amounts of the amino acid precursor.

Bananas, especially ripe bananas, are an exceptional food for regulating dopamine because they have a high concentration of tyrosine. Other foods that increase dopamine through the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine include almonds, apples, watermelons, cherries, yogurt, beans, eggs and meats.

It is important to note that dopamine foods alone generally do not have the therapeutic amino acid levels necessary to boost dopamine levels for someone experiencing major depressive disorder. To boost your levels of dopamine, dopamine rich foods may not be adequate. Tyrosine supplementation may help.

3. Decrease caffeine intake. Even though coffee gives you the energy boost you need, just like sugar, it only offers temporary relief and may actually be doing more harm than good. After experiencing the initial kick caffeine offers, dopamine levels in the body decrease. So, go for a cup of decaf or at least minimize consumption of coffee to counter dopamine deficiency.[5]

4. Set a routine schedule. One easy way to boost dopamine is to get in a healthy routine and stick to it. Your routine should include adequate time for work and rest. Ideally, your 24-hour day should include seven to eight hours of sleep per night in combination with periods of physical activity.

Under-sleeping and/or over-sleeping combined with lack of regular exercise can drain the brain of dopamine. Why? Proper sleep gives the brain time to recuperate from the day and recharge its stores of neurotransmitters.

5. Get consistent exercise. Regular physical activity increases blood circulation to influence the presence of many different hormones within the brain, affecting dopamine levels.

6. Decrease stress levels. High stress levels are also strongly correlated with dopamine deficiency. Stress can be caused by two sources: poor adrenal function and chronic daily life stressors. While we can’t always control our circumstances, there are “stress safeguards” you can utilize to help you deal with the day-in and day-out anxieties.

Remember, if stress is not handled properly, it can be devastating to your health. So, establish an ongoing plan that enables you to deal with stress effectively.

7. Correct a magnesium deficiency. Magnesium deficiency can cause decreased levels of dopamine, and natural health experts estimate over half of the US population to be deficient in this relaxation mineral. If you’ve been eating a diet heavy in junk foods or processed foods, you probably have a magnesium deficiency! Common symptoms include food cravings (salt or carbs), constipation, high blood pressure, rapid heartbeat or palpitations, muscle pains and spasms, fatigue, headaches, and depression symptoms such as mood swings, anxiety and irritability.

There are blood and urine tests that your doctor can perform to see if you have a magnesium deficiency. However, these tests may not always be accurate since most of the body’s magnesium stays in the cells, rather than in the bloodstream or the urine.

There is one lab test called a sublingual epithelial test that is more effective because it checks for magnesium in the cells, where most of it is present. To perform this test, your doctor will scrape under your tongue with a tongue depressor to obtain epithelial cells, which are then sent to a lab for analysis. Schedule this test with your doctor or start increasing your intake of magnesium.[6]

Amino Acid Therapy and Trichotillomania

Amino Acid Therapy and Trichotillomania

Amino acid therapy can be very effective at restoring proper neurotransmitter function and alleviating the insatiable urge to pull that some many people with trichotillomania experience. There are really two ways in which amino acids are used for people with trichotillomania. The first is to use n-acetyl cysteine, or NAC, which has been shown in clinical trials to reduce the urge to pull in about 56% of people that use NAC (see our post entitled N-acetylcysteine and Treatment of Trichotillomania for more information). NAC is thought to work by increasing the concentration of glutamate (an excitatory neurotransmitter) in a part of the brain that reduces compulsive behavior and hair pulling. Glutamate works in conjunction with GABA (an inhibitory neurotransmitter) to control many functions in the body. Thus, NAC provides a safe and moderately effective strategy to use amino acid therapy to decrease the urge to pull associated with trichotillomania.

However, we have found that a more effective way to implement amino acid therapy in regards to trichotillomania is to address the serotonin/dopamine system. By providing the brain the proper proportion of the necessary amino acid precursors and cofactors necessary to achieve optimal serotonin and dopamine function we have had an 86% success rate with eliminating the urge to pull, as opposed to just reducing the urge to pull.

This increased success rate is attributed to the fact that dopamine exhibits control over the release of glutamate and GABA in certain parts of the brain. Therefore, the imbalance between glutamate and GABA that leads to trichotillomania in most people is likely to be caused by an imbalance with dopamine and serotonin (as they are farther upstream). By optimizing serotonin and dopamine function, all the systems downstream, including glutamate and GABA normalize as well. When this happens, the urge to pull disappears.

Another key distinction between using NAC or this balanced amino acid approach is the ability to remain symptom free once the amino acid(s) have been discontinued. With NAC, the urge to pull often returns once the supplement is discontinued (this provides further evidence that NAC may not be addressing the root cause of the imbalance). However, with balanced amino acid therapy we have found that once optimized neurotransmitter function is established and maintained for a period of time, most people can reduce or eliminate the amino acids and remain symptom free utilizing dietary and lifestyle factors to maintain optimal neurotransmitter status. This means that it is very likely you won’t have to take these supplements forever and you can remain trichotillomania-free. This occurs because we are addressing the underlying root imbalance that seems to lead to the urge to pull for most people with trichotillomania. By correctly the underlying neurotransmitter imbalance with balanced amino acid therapy you effectively eliminate the problem, which allows you to stop pulling your hair out.